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                  相遇——評哈薩克族音樂專輯《白色的波浪》
                  2019-06-19 06:59 作者:熱依扎 來源:《中國民族》雜志

                  對于哈薩克族來說,音樂、詩歌、舞蹈,都是生命中不可或缺的重要部分。有人說馬和歌是哈薩克族的一對翅膀,熟悉哈薩克族的人都知道這句話絕非戲言。但是,由于語言和地域的原因,某些生活在邊遠地區的哈薩克族音樂家的影響力有限,在大眾音樂圈籍籍無名。


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                  新疆阿勒泰地區的作曲家沙依拉西·加爾木哈買提在當地享有較高的聲譽,他的新專輯《白色的波浪》一經問世,就受到了專業樂評人的褒獎。現年59歲的沙依拉西顯然是一位全能的樂手,能夠彈奏冬不拉和庫步孜,且是庫布孜唯一的國家級非物質文化遺產傳承人。他還有制作樂器的手藝,成立了自己的樂器制作公司。但到目前為止,他也僅出版過3張冬不拉獨奏專輯:1994年的《生命的回憶》、2000年的《阿爾泰古區》、2002年的《無暇的雨》。這3張冬不拉獨奏專輯主要在阿勒泰地區流傳,未能有更廣泛的影響。除了那些留心于民族音樂的人,很多人可能一生都不會聽到一首冬不拉曲,更不會知道沙依拉西這樣的作曲家。


                  提到沙依拉西,就要提到馬木爾。生活在北京的哈薩克族音樂人馬木爾,出生于音樂世家,從小就學習音樂,掌握了多種樂器的演奏方法。2002年前后,馬木爾來到北京,組建了IZ樂隊,立足于哈薩克族民間音樂的傳統,同時又努力創造著屬于自己的音樂語言。這支樂隊始終堅持用哈薩克語演唱,影響廣泛,曾多次獲邀赴海內外演出。在2004年5月,《人民日報》采訪了馬木爾,哈薩克斯坦前總統納扎爾巴耶夫還接見過他。有人說,薩頂頂、杭蓋、馬木爾,是中國世界音樂“出海”較成功的3位音樂人。


                  馬木爾聽到沙依拉西的冬不拉專輯后,曾將磁帶轉錄后分贈給IZ樂隊成員,盡管音質粗陋,但這張唱片成為這些樂手當年“扒帶子”的冬不拉“圣經”。由此,馬木爾又與沙依拉西合作了新專輯《白色的波浪》。在馬木爾的幫助下,這張經摩登天空旗下Modernsky Worldmusic廠牌發行的專輯顯然流傳更廣,影響更大,與往常僅在本民族內流通的樂曲大不一樣。


                  《白色的波浪》一共有22首曲目,馬木爾擔任專輯的制作人。專輯第一張是沙依拉西的獨奏,第二張則是馬木爾與沙依拉西的“對話”。


                  第二張專輯給人的感覺非常多元,很多曲目即興感很強。馬木爾圍繞沙依拉西的演奏,后期加進了自己的吉他或貝斯演奏,并加入不少音效,嘗試在豐富而廣闊的的現代音樂語境中重新認識和激發冬不拉這個古老的樂器。馬木爾的音效豐富了沙依拉西的演奏,擴大了原本的空間感。比如《跛腳的鴨》中細如蟲鳴的開頭、《花眼睛的走馬》中如林中鳥鳴的音效、《白哈巴河的波浪》中暗涌的波濤,都為曲子增添了極強的畫面感;在《生命的回憶》和《窈窕淑女》中,馬木爾的音效更是猶如一股強勁的狂風,將整個歌曲吹起,進入另一個空間。


                  而在第一張專輯中,沙依拉西的獨奏作品與他前一張專輯《悲傷的獵人》有很大的不同。這些作品沒有飛速的彈撥和炫技,飽含的情感卻在“不動聲色”中流露。獨奏曲目多以走馬、飛鳥等動物命名,也有不少以故事命名,讀著言簡意賅的句子,聽著蹄聲、浪花般的冬不拉,仿佛能看見那片古老的哈薩克草原。很多曲子均有背景故事的介紹,簡短卻十分動人,充沛的情感都宣泄在音樂里。如果你是個情感豐富的音樂家,無需長篇大論地滿足自己的表達欲,一段動人的旋律足矣。


                  專輯同名曲《白色的波浪》一如它的名字。手指在冬不拉的上下弦游動,浪花的舒卷就被音樂演繹出來,前奏深沉低緩,似智者低語;結尾高亢明亮,情感強烈而真摯。作曲家用冬不拉的羊腸弦一下子把我們引到了阿勒泰寬闊的青河,河面上薄霧氤氳,萬籟寂靜,只有一片片浪花是萬靜中的動,旋律表現出浪層起伏的波紋,靜謐而深遠。《白色的波浪》就如浪花那樣,輕盈而有力量。能把千變萬化的波浪紋路套牢在旋律里的,是沙依拉西這位哈薩克族音樂人的天賦和熱愛。


                  要讀懂一個熱愛并擅長音樂的民族,一首冬不拉曲只能管中窺豹,領略十之一二。長期在阿勒泰的小城里彈奏著冬不拉的沙依拉西,和在北京生活的馬木爾,是哈薩克族音樂人的縮影。他們的音樂之路也許并不星光閃耀,卻都有著生命沉甸甸的重量。


                  (見習編輯 王孺杰)


                  制作:李泓


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                  Copyright ? 2014 minzu All Rights Reserved 京ICP備15020131號-2
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